Network upgrade for Ubuntu desktops

Here are some quick info for updating Ubuntu from the command line that I used earlier.

Network upgrade for Ubuntu desktops (Recommended)

You can easily upgrade over the network with the following procedure.

  1. Start System/Administration/Update Manager.
  2. Click the Check button to check for new updates.
  3. If there are any updates to install, use the Install Updates button to install them, and press Check again after that is complete.
  4. A message will appear informing you of the availability of the new release.
  5. Click Upgrade.
  6. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Network upgrade for Ubuntu servers (Recommended)

  1. Install update-manager-core if it is not already installed:
    sudo apt-get install update-manager-core
    
  2. edit /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades and set Prompt=normal
  3. Launch the upgrade tool:
    sudo do-release-upgrade
  4. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Upgrade from 8.04 LTS to 10.04 LTS

Network upgrade for Ubuntu desktops (Recommended)

You can easily upgrade over the network with the following procedure.

  1. Press Alt-F2 and type update-manager --devel-release
  2. Click the Check button to check for new updates.
  3. If there are any updates to install, use the Install Updates button to install them, and press Check again after that is complete.
  4. A message will appear informing you of the availability of the new release.
  5. Click Upgrade.
  6. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Network upgrade for Ubuntu servers (Recommended)

  1. Install update-manager-core if it is not already installed:
    sudo apt-get install update-manager-core
  2. edit /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades and set Prompt=lts
  3. Launch the upgrade tool:
    sudo do-release-upgrade --devel-release
  4. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Other upgrade options exist, please view the Upgrade Notes to learn more.

X11 forwarding and SSH for remote linux / ubuntu desktop

Here’s something I used earlier..

Connecting to Remote Linux Desktop via SSH with X11 Forwarding

by Forrest Sheng Bao http://fsbao.net

There are two advantages of Linux, compared with many other operating systems, such as Windows and Mac OS X. The first advantage is the ultimate B/S architecture. Thus, everything software is either a server or a program running on a server. When clicking my mouse, I am talking to a server program called X Server on my box. When surfing Internet, I am using Firefox, a browser running on X Server. The second advantage is that you can always find many choices to achieve one goal. When I wanna connecting my Linux box remotely with a graphic desktop environment, I have many choice, VNC (or VNC over SSH, VNC over VPN), SSH with X-window enabled, xdmcp, etc. Here we will discuss how to connect to your Linux desktop via “ssh -X”. It’s very easy, you just need to type two more letters than common SSH connection.

Why “ssh -X”? Because the graphic rendering job is done at your client so the data to transfer thru network is not huge. You won’t feel the screen is delayed even when you play movies. And this won’t add your server much load, as the same reason, thus a lot of job is done by your client. So, this is a high efficiency solution for remote desktop. You even can run big commercial graphic software, like Xilinx ISE or Mathworks MATLAB, remotely. And, this supports multi-client, no matter using different username or same username, since you a connecting to a server, both SSH server and X server.

Of course, you need to properly install and configure your SSH server, which is on the same machine running your Linux graphic desktop environment (KDE, GNOME, Xfce, or whatever). Obviously, you MUST install your SSH server program. You can install it via “sudo apt-get install openssh-server” on Ubuntu Linux 7.10. I think you can easily figure out how to do so on other Linux distributions. Then edit the file /etc/ssh/ssh_config. Make these lines be in that configuration file:

ForwardAgent yes
ForwardX11 yes
ForwardX11Trusted yes

Now open /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Attention, the file name is sshd_config, not the same as previous one. Make sure this line be in this configuration file

X11Forwarding yes

Restart your SSH server. Now, go to your client computer, from which you will connect to this computer.

I have no idea on how to do next on Windows. If your client computer runs on Linux or Mac OS X, or other OS with X server running, go ahead.

If your client computer runs on Mac OS X, make sure that you have installed X11 for Mac OS X. Go to “Application”- > “Utilities” to start X11 and you will see an xterm terminal in front of you by default. If no such window, click “Applications” – > “Terminal”.

Now let’s simply type

ssh -X user_name@the_server_IP_or_hostname.domainame

. For example, if my server is www.example.com and my username is NSF, I simply type

ssh -X NSF@www.example.com

. Accept the RAS key and enter your password.

Have logged in? Ok, the big show is coming. If your desktop is GNOME, then just type

gnome-session

. What do you see? The GNOME desktop is in front of you. If your desktop is others, such as KDE or Xfce, please refer their docs on how to start them.

Try to something, and you will really find that the networked remote desktop is very fast. You can even play movies. No delay, right? As I just said before, the graphic rendering job is done at your client so the data to transfer thru network is not huge. It’s just like when you play a 3D network game, like World of Warcraft, only some instructions are transferred thru the Internet but not all 3D objects.

This is my desktop connecting to remote Linux box from a Mac. The left-top corner lays Xlinx ISE. The left-bottom is playing 2008 New Years Concert. I put the Mac info page over the Linux desktop. Like it? DIY, now!

SSh to Linux box from Mac

Starter Reference for Ubuntu Users

Here is a blog post I have referred to a number of times recently in my adventures with Ubuntu.

Synaptic? deb? sudo? apt? Damn! I still remember when I first installed Ubuntu (my first encounter with Linux). But God bless Google, Ubuntu Forums, a few other resources and Blogs. Things became easier than I thought. Here, I will be posting a reference about Ubuntu things! And to end with top 5 Ubuntu resources on web for Ubuntu starters.

Privileges

sudo command – run command as root
sudo -s – open a root shell
sudo -s -u user – open a shell as user
sudo -k – forget sudo passwords
gksudo command – visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
kdesudo command – visual sudo dialog (KDE)
sudo visudo – edit /etc/sudoers
gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
passwd – change your password

Display

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – restart X and return to login (GNOME)
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – restart X and return to login (KDE)
sudo dexconf – reset xorg.conf configuration
Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – restart X display if frozen
Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display

System Services

(Prefix commands with sudo to run)

start service – start job service (Upstart)
stop service – stop job service (Upstart)
status service – check if service is running (Upstart)
/etc/init.d/service start – start service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service status – check service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service restart – restart service (SysV)
runlevel – get current runlevel

Package Mangement

(Prefix commands with sudo to run)

apt-get update – refresh available updates
apt-get upgrade – upgrade all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade – upgrade with package
replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version
apt-get install pkg – install pkg
apt-get purge pkg – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove – remove obsolete packages
apt-get -f install – try to fix broken packages
dpkg –configure -a – try to fix broken packages
dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list – APT repository list

Network

ifconfig – show network information
iwconfig – show wireless information
sudo iwlist scan – scan for wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset
network for manual configurations
(file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual configuration
ifup interface – bring interface online
ifdown interface – disable interface

Special Packages

linux-headers-generic – latest build headers
ubuntu-desktop – standard Ubuntu environment
kubuntu-desktop – KDE desktop
xubuntu-desktop – XFCE desktop
ubuntu-minimal – core Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-standard – standard Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-restricted-extras – non-free, but useful
kubuntu-restricted-extras – KDE of the above
xubuntu-restricted-extras – XFCE of the above
build-essential – packages used to compile programs
linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel image

Applications Name

nautilus – file manager (GNOME)
dolphin – file manager (KDE)
konqueror – web browser (KDE)
kate – text editor (KDE)
gedit – text editor (GNOME)

System

lsb_release -a – get Ubuntu version
uname -r – get kernel version
uname -a – get all kernel information

Top 5 web resoureses for Ubuntu Starters

http://ubuntuforums.org/ (Great, helpful and most responsive community)

http://www.ubuntugeek.com/ (A lot of Tips and Tricks)

http://www.gnome-look.org/ (Add a little flavor to Gnome)

http://tombuntu.com/ (Nice Ubuntu Blog)

http://lifehacker.com/ (Not specific to Ubuntu but they have a lot of good Ubuntu articles)

And here is the bonus

http://fosswire.com/ (the source of above information)

Hope, this might help you in your Ubuntu venture. If you like the post, please Digg or Stumble it.

http://yabblog.com/2008/10/25/ubuntu-reference/  My source of this information.

How to make directories writable in Ubuntu or most other distribs

Re: How to make directories writable?

Applications -> Accessories -> Terminal

Type:

sudo chmod -R 777 /opt/lampp/ for example

or

sudo chmod -R (for recursive ((don’t type this))) 755 is a bit safer as it does not allow a folder to be world writable. What that’d look like without my mess is:

sudo chmod -R 755 /public_html/wp/etc/etc

Or if you are logged in via FTP as the user that owns the web folders then you would usually right click (if you’re using a graphical FTP client) on the file or folder and either add the writes where you want them or in some cases just type the 755/777 etc.

Related External Links

Ubuntu Unleashed: Howto: Install Safari on Ubuntu with Flash and Shockwave Hulu, Youtube, Shockwave Works

Ubuntu Unleashed: Howto: Install Safari on Ubuntu with Flash and Shockwave Hulu, Youtube, Shockwave Works.

I’m using this guide to get Safari going under ubuntu and wine to test a website i’m working on for standards compliance. .. .. It does seem that installing the fonts is neccessary and that you may have ot change the

cp /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman*.ttf ~/.wine/drive_c/windows/Fonts/   –The final F in Fonts is not initially capitalized.. anwyays back to it..;)